The structural and electronic characteristics of C60 fullerene provide the possibility of carrying out various types of chemical transformations, which have led to a large number of water-soluble fullerenes with a wide variety of biological activity. Chemical modification of the C60 fullerene molecule by hydroxyl groups has opened a new era of water-soluble carbon compounds. Studies of the fullerene C60 biological properties and its derivatives began ten years ago and are now an important area of industry research. The most important characteristics of fullerenols with respect to the mechanisms of their biological activity are the photosensitizing properties and ability to remove free radicals. Antioxidant activity and the ability to absorb free radicals are widely used in biomedical research. Antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of various water-soluble fullerenols C60 (OH) n were observed in various experimental models. Studies by world scientists have shown that fullerenols C60 (OH) 12 and C60 (OH) 18-24 can reduce the excitotoxic and apoptotic death of cultured cortical neurons. The chemical modification of fullerenes into water-soluble cluster molecules has made fullerenes interesting for biological research. Among them, polycarbonate and polyhydroxylated derivatives of fullerene C60 demonstrated the most interesting biological activities.
The most important results of biological studies in vitro and in vivo with fullerenol C60 (OH) 24:
C60 (OH) 24 is a powerful antioxidant: reacts with superoxide anion radical, hydroxy radical and nitrous oxide in chemical and biological systems.
Fullerenol C60 (OH) 24 does not inhibit the growth of cancer cells, but shows highly modulated cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin and cis-platinum after 24 and 48 hours of treatment (protected the rat heart from the toxicity of doxorubicin). It exhibits various radioprotective effects.
Studies of the biodistribution of fullerenol show that fullerenol, as a nanoparticle, may become a new promising drug in the near future.
Fullerenol (water-soluble fullerene) has unique properties and can act as a strong antioxidant that affects the redox state of cells, possesses a large radical and cytotoxic activity, including the energetical activity of hydroxyl radical purification.
Fullerenol and chemical compounds based on it are capable of acting as mitochondrial protective antioxidants and neuroprotective antioxidants that inhibit apoptosis of neurons, hepatoprotective and nephroprotective antioxidants, and strong antitumor and antimetastatic agents. . They have excellent radio and cyto-protective agents, etc.
Fullerenol (hydroxylated fullerene) is a strong pharmacological and biologically active nanomaterial.
There is also a very strong potential for the use of these fullerenols in industry, medicine, and related fields.